Introduction To Segmentation: The microprocessor has 20 bit address pins; these are capable of addressing 1MegaByte memory. Causes all segments to default to DWORD alignmentP enabled assembly of all instructions (see) enabled assembly of instructions . This directive tells the assembler the name of the logical segment it should use for a specified segment. For example ASSUME CS:CODE, tells.

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If the word starts at an odd address, the will take 2 bus cycles to get the data. Assembly language consists of two types of statements viz. But leave the bytes un-initialized. It also finds out codes of the instructions from the instruction machine, code database and the program data.

CODE [name] The name durectives this format is optional.

The assembler will then put this information in the object code file so that the linker can connect the two modules together. Thus the basic task of an assembler is to generate the object module and prepare the loading and linking information. It processes the pseudo operands and directives. If the word is at even address can read a memory in 1 bus directves.

Link list 3 Automata Languages and Computation. It consists of the entire instruction set of Another type of hint which helps the assembler to assign a particular constant with a label or initialize particular memory locations or labels with constants is an xirectives. The ASSUME directive is used to inform the assembler, the names of the logical segments to be assumed for different segments used in the asse,bler.

The DB directive is used to reserve byte or bytes of memory locations in the available memory. The EVEN directive updates the location counter to the next even address, if the current location counter contents are not even, and assigns the following routine or variable or constant to that address.

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The Addressing Modes. ENDS This directive is used with name of the segment to indicate the end of that logic segment. Procedure for assembling a program Assembling a program proceeds statement by statement sequentially.

Macro Assembler Directives

Its format is as follows: The works directly with only 4 physical segments: The second phase looks for the addresses and data assigned to the labels.

This directive is used to declare a byte type variable or to store a byte in assembleer location. To this a bit offset is added to generate the bit physical address. These types of hints are given to the assembler using some predefined alphabetical strings called assembler directives, which helps the assembler to correctly understand the assembly language program to prepare the codes.

Assembler Directives & Macros

They are classified into the following categories based on the function performed by them- Simplified segment directives Data allocation directives Segment directives Macros related directives Code label directives Scope directives Listing control directives Miscellaneous directives. The DW directive serves assemgler same purposes as the DB directive, but it makes the assembler reserves the number of memory oc 16bit instead of bytes. The DT directive directs the assembler to define the specified variable requiring bytes for its storage and initialize the bytes with the specified values.

Introduction Digital and Analog Signals Signals carry information and are defined Define Ten bytes [DT]- It is used to define the data items that are 10 bytes long. The code segment registers are used to hold programs,data segment register to keep data, stack segment register for stack operations and extra segment register to keep strings of data. DW — Define Word This directive is used to define a variable of type word or to reserve storage location of type word in memory.

Each time the assembler finds the name in the program, it will replace the name with the value or symbol you given to that name. Newer Post Older Post Home. Not available in MASM. You get question papers, syllabus, subject analysis, answers – all in one app.


Posted by k10blogger at 2: Executable statements- These are the statements to be executed by the processor. DT — Define Ten Bytes This directive is used to define a variable which is 10 bytes in length or to reserve 10 bytes of storage in the memory. In order for the modules to link together correctly, any variable name or label referred to in other modules must be declared PUBLIC in the module in which it is defined.

The data is stored in data segment area. The program is stored in code segment area. The directive EQU is used to assign a label with a value or symbol.

EQU This directive is used to give a name to some value or to a symbol. Rest will be added with time……. MODEL- This directive is assembleg for selecting a standard memory model for the assembly language program. Assembler directives- These are the statements that direct the assembler to do something. END- This is placed at the end of a source and it aswembler as the last statement of a program.

EVEN This directive instructs the assembler to increment the location of the counter to the next even address if it is not already in the even address.

Segmentation helps in the following way. Name or labels referred to as external in one module must 83086 declared public with the PUBLIC directive in the module in which they are defined. Loader linker further converts the object module prepared by the assembler into executable form, by linking it with other object modules and library modules.